Geology

Bachelor of Science | B.Sc.

Geology is the study of Earth, which deals with its formation, its structure and composition and the type of process acting on it. Geology is concerned with the history of the Earth over the course of its 4.5 billion year life.

The program deals with formation and classification of rocks and minerals, it covers how fossils are preserved in sedimentary rocks, it takes you to field to experience how landscapes like mountains, waterfalls, gorges are formed, then it takes you to underground mines, to understand how minerals are explored and located subsurface. It also deals with study of remote sensing, which scans the Earth by satellite in order to obtain information about it.

show more... show less...

Pedagogy

  • Power Point Presentation.
  • Group discussion.
  • Creation of Mind map.
  • Poster presentation.
  • Experiential learning (field based learning).
  • Use of LMS tools like Google classroom and MOODLE.

Career Prospects

In India, Geologists are recruited to the top positions as scientists/researchers in the government, industry and education sector.

PSU’s/ Government sector:-
  • Geological Survey of India.
  • Central Ground Water Board.
  • Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited.
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited.
  • Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited.
  • Indian Space Research Organisation.
  • Defence Research and Development Organisation.
  • Atomic Mineral Directorate Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
  • National Eligibility Test for lectureship.
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Oil India Limited.
  • Coal India Limited, Directorate of Mines for Each State.
  • National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited.
  • Regional Space Application Centre for every state.
  • Indian Administrative Services/ Indian Forest Services.
  • Birbal Sahani Institute of Palaeosciences.
  • Sutlej Power station.
  • Indian Bureau of Mines, Neyveli Coal India ltd., Ministry of Earth Sciences.
 

Private Sector (Schlumberger, Cairn India, Shell, ESRI, Reliance, L&T)

 

Students can do higher studies in various national institute: IIT Mumbai, IIT Roorkee, IIT Kharagpur, IIT Bhubaneswar, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad. NIT Rourkela, NIT Raipur, NIT Durgapur. Banaras Hindu University, University of Delhi, AMU, Pondicherry University. Central university of Kerala, Sikkim, Punjab etc. State universities like, SP Pune University, M S Baroda, Goa University etc.

Eminent Alumni

Programme Outcomes

By the end of this course, students will be able to :

  • Differentiate between the igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that are found on the Earth’s surface and in the subsurface and describe the modes of their formation.
  • Evaluate the stratigraphy of an area in terms of the tectonic or non-tectonic changes experienced by it.
  • Identify different fossils and interpret the appropriate geological age for them based on their evolutionary characteristics.
  • Recall the 32 crystallographic classes and explain their symmetry.
  • Study structural outcrops in the field and predict the chronology of events that led to deformation of the rocks.
  • Identify various minerals and their ores based on physical properties and recall their modes of formation.
  • Identify various geomorphological features and interpret their formation due to intrinsic and/or intrinsic factors.
  • Summarise the basics of subsurface hydrology and predict the flow of groundwater in order to evaluate its effect on engineering structures.

Curriculum

First Year (Semester- I)

It is important to understand the origin and evolution of Earth as it is the only habitable place in the entire solar system for humans. With increasing population and to maintain the sustainability of humans, it is important to comprehend the Earth, Atmosphere and Ocean in more detail. The paper deals with the different constituents of Atmosphere and Ocean and its effect on the life of humans.

This subject deals with the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and rocks. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization. The students get the knowledge of mineral formation and their characteristics. With the acquired knowledge they develop skill to identify various minerals and mineral deposits.

First Year (Semester- II)

Plate tectonics is the study of movement of the tectonic plates due to the Earth’s convection currents. The study of plate tectonics is the core of further geological topics as it explains the occurrence of different rock types. This leads us to Petrology which is the study of different types of rocks on the Earth’s surface and the conditions under which they are formed there. The movement of rocks in the brittle and/or ductile regime is the domain of structural geology. This explains how rocks undergo and accommodate stress that is caused by plate movements.

This course introduces the concept of stratigraphy. Geology is a science that deals with the earth and the various processes that are operational with respect to time. The student gets to understand the various methods which help in age determination of geologic events. One of the most reliable methods is paleontology. It deals with different types of fossils, their morphology and importance in Geology.

Second Year (Semester- III)

The stratigraphy and Palaeontology are of one of the important branches in Geology as it determines the sequence of events taking place in any sedimentary basin with the help of fossils. It helps in understanding the origin, evolution and preservation of life in rocks and the fundamentals of stratigraphic succession and its correlation.

Crystallography is the science that examines the arrangement of atoms in solids. As a foundation in the subject of mineralogy, this course deals with the principles and identification of minerals based on their crystal structure.

Geomorphology deals with the interaction of the physical world with agents such as plate tectonics, wind, water and ice. This paper makes use of real examples to understand the delicate balance of elements that gives rise to the landforms around us.

Second Year (Semester- IV)

Geologists have a major role to play in the exploration and resource management. Economic geology deals with the scientific study of the Earth's sources of mineral raw materials and the practical application of the acquired knowledge. The economy of every country depends on the various mineral resources found thus it is one of the major subjects dealing with employability.

Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties. Most commonly, rock and mineral samples are prepared as thin sections or grain mounts for study in the laboratory with a petrographic microscope. Optical mineralogy is used to identify the mineralogical composition of geological materials in order to help reveal their origin and evolution.

Surficial water and water underneath the Earth’s surface are affected by changes in the lithology, topography and anthropogenic changes. Geohydrology deals with the study of each of these factors, allowing us to develop an understanding of the use and conservation of groundwater resources.

Third Year (Semester- V)

The paper deals with the history and evolution of the Earth and Indian subcontinent since its formation. The objective of this paper is to describe the tectonic elements of continent and ocean with reference to the peninsular and extra peninsular India during the Precambrian period and the significance of stratigraphic correlation.

Igneous rocks are the primary rocks formed in the depths of the Earth’s crust from cooling magma. Different compositions and conditions of cooling of the magma may lead to formation of completely different types of rocks. This paper deals with the study of all such rocks and the inference of rock forming conditions from it.

Structural assessment and Geological mapping being the core skill sets required for any geologist, this course helps students to develop a basic understanding in analyzing structural geology in their field studies. The primary goal of structural geology is to use measurements of present-day rock geometries to uncover information about the history of deformation (strain) in the rocks, and ultimately, to understand the stress field that resulted in the observed strain and geometries.

Sedimentary rocks are important sources of natural resources like fossil fuels and economic minerals. The study of the sequence of sedimentary rock strata is the main source for an understanding of the Earth's history, including palaeogeography, paleoclimatology and the paleobiology throughout the geological time. It helps in interpreting the origin and distribution of sedimentary rocks in terms of the physico-chemical and biological processes that led to their formation.

Understanding the formation of elements and how their relative abundance brings about the various chemical reactions in nature and the universe at large is fundamental to the understanding of geology. This paper deals with the chemical makeup of rocks, creation ofthe elements and interaction between them that has shaped our planet.

Technology has become a necessity and remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) lie at the heart of this revolution. RS-GIS allows us to monitor the Earth remotely, communicate instantaneously across geographic and political barriers and keep records of relevant information in the form of easily retrievable geodatabases. The paper touches upon each of these aspects and their basic underlying principles in depth with applications and practicals designed for future work in research or the industry.

Geological exploration is the process of finding commercially viable mineral resources and the objective is to locate it in the shortest possible time and at the lowest possible cost. This paper deals with various exploration methods in detail.

Several important field techniques and skill sets are taught in this course. Methods and uses of Brunton compass, clinometer, Mapping exercises are covered in detail. Mining methods and problems involving mining methods are taught in theory.

Third Year (Semester- VI)

The paper describes the origin and development of different Phanerozoic stratigraphic formations of India and several problems associated with stratigraphic boundaries. It focuses on the stratigraphic age, lithology, fossil content and important economic minerals present in different Phanerozoic successions of India.

Based on its mode of formation and prevalent conditions during cooling, each igneous rock displays characteristic texture and structure. This paper on igneous textures and structures deals with the identification of these and further interpretation of the conditions under which the rock underwent formation.

An important pillar in the field of Petrology, this course helps students in developing a basic understanding of the process of metamorphism and analysis of microtextures and macro-textures in a rock. Metamorphic petrology focuses on the composition and texture of metamorphic rocks (rocks such as slate, marble, gneiss, or schist which started out as sedimentary or igneous rocks but which have undergone chemical, mineralogical or textural changes due to extremes of pressure, temperature or both.

Construction of buildings, bridges, dams and tunnels requires through knowledge of the underlying geology, identification of weak and strong structures and devising ways to construct stable structures within the weakest lithologies. This paper on engineering geology deals with all such aspects that are vital before any construction activity.

We are reeling under the effects of drastically changing weather patterns but such conditions have been experienced before in the Earth’s geological past. This paper on Earth and Climate identifies the factors responsible for changing climatic patterns and for global warming and cooling that may have led to an ice age.

Urban geology is the study of the inorganic components of cities and of Earth surface processes in their environs. In the broadest terms, urban geology is the application of the earth sciences to problems arising at the nexus of the geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere within urban and urbanizing areas.

This paper focuses on the change from a single-celled organism in the Pre-Cambrian to highly-functioning multi-cellular beings in the Holocene. The journey of evolving beings through geological time is of high importance to understand our place in the evolutionary tree.

This paper includes visits to different geological formations of the Precambrian and Phanerozoic periods to understand its formation and its geological significance in terms of fossils and mineral resources present. The paper helps in identification of geological features in the field and further its utilization in geological mapping.

Differentiators

B.Sc. Geology Programme at KJSSC is unique because it offers

  • Department is recognized and funded by STAR-DBT grant.
  • Department has following equipments: Polarizing microscope of Lawrence and Mayo, Rock cutting, Thin section preparation machine, Sieve shaker, TDS / Electric conductivity meter, GPS eTrex 30X, Soil testing kit, Water testing kit, Hammer , Brunton, Clinometer, etc all necessary field equipment is available.
  • Department has a fully equipped GIS lab.
  • Department conducts certificate, Diploma course in RS-GIS under University of Mumbai.
  • Conducts invited lectures/talks by eminent people from Earth science community.
  • Every year students are taken for fieldwork either in and around Mumbai or out of Maharashtra.
  • Department conducts coaching sessions for competitive exams like JAM and GATE.
  • Department has a unique collection of rocks, minerals and fossils in its museum.
  • The departmental library is listing over 100 text books, reference books, memoirs and records of GSI and other research journals.
  • Project based Learning, cooperative learning strategies
  • Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) such as Moodle, Google Classroom, Google quiz, Webinars, Google meet, Microsoft Teams, OFFEE etc.
  • Interaction with Stalwarts through Seminar, Workshops
  • Add-on Certificate Courses
  • Annual Intercollegiate Fest RASAYAN
  • Field Visits

Coordinator

Mr. Deepak Kumar Sahu
deepak.sahu@somaiya.edu